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Hintergrund ist die Einrichtung eines zweiten Datenzentrums (weitere Informationen). Hollywood. Hollywood ist ein Mythos. Hollywoods Anfänge; Das goldene Zeitalter des Studiosystems; Das Ende der Studio-Ära; Die. Hier finden Sie Interessante Informationen und Fakten zur Geschichte und Reparatur des berühmten Hollywood Sign. Allein der Name lässt Herzen höher schlagen. Hollywood ist nicht nur der garantiert berühmteste Stadtteil von Los Angeles, es ist auch das Synonym. Alle aktuellen News zum Thema Hollywood sowie Bilder, Videos und Infos zu Hollywood bei teekla.be

Hollywood Infos

Hier finden Sie Interessante Informationen und Fakten zur Geschichte und Reparatur des berühmten Hollywood Sign. Hintergrund ist die Einrichtung eines zweiten Datenzentrums (weitere Informationen). Hollywood. Allein der Name lässt Herzen höher schlagen. Hollywood ist nicht nur der garantiert berühmteste Stadtteil von Los Angeles, es ist auch das Synonym. Hollywood Infos Genres: Drama. Raymond Ainsley 7 episodes, Laura Harrier As the Oscars approach, Skat 2000 Kostenlos shares devastating news, Camille listens to sage advice Bet Casino Online Hattie McDaniel, and Archie takes a stand on the red carpet. Color: Color. America wanted to be wowed, and that is exactly these films did. There were both financial and legal reasons for the move. Goofs Despite what this series purports, Henry Willson was never elevated to film producer. Strategie Poker, in the very same year, the God-fearing Hollywood Board of Trustees actually banned movie theaters from the town.

At first, the majority of studios settled in Edendale, a hilly and somewhat congested area just west of downtown. It wasn't until that the first film studio, the Nestor Film Company, established itself in Hollywood proper.

By a happy coincidence, the city of Los Angeles had subsumed Hollywood, rendering the prohibition against movie theaters null and void. By the s, film production was wholly centered in Hollywood, with a scattering of studios established to the north, in Burbank, or southwest in Culver City.

The stars had also staked their claim to the geographic high-ground, moving from the downtown—the adjacent Silver Lake was the neighborhood of choice for the earliest silent stars—to the Hollywood Hills and just west to the lush canyons of Beverly Hills.

By some accounts most notably, Kenneth Anger 's lurid, sensationalistic bio-dissection, Hollywood Babylon , the silent era was a never-ending party of dope, booze, and aggressive promiscuity.

In this innocent time, drugs were an acceptable subject for pictures. In , for instance, Douglas Fairbanks starred in The Mystery of the Leaping Fish, appearing as Coke Ennyday, a somewhat besotted detective who availed himself liberally of "joy powder.

And push they did, with tragic results. In , popular starlet Olive Thomas committed suicide in Paris, occasioned by her failure to procure heroin; in , comedian Fatty Arbuckle was arrested for the death of aspiring starlet Virginia Rappe during "rough sex.

But the hemorrhaging had gone too far. In the wake of public outrage, the Hollywood production heads reluctantly appointed William H.

Hays, a Republican functionary, to act as arbiter of the public morality. Into the s, the notorious Hays Commission would pass judgment on all Hollywood product.

Hays declared that the movies needed purifying, both in content and cast. To aid in the latter, he released a notorious black-list, the kiss of death for many a screen idol.

Wallace Reid, one of Paramount's biggest stars, made the list he died in a sanitarium the following year , as did Juanita Hansen and Alma Rubens, both popular leading ladies, and both soon to be deceased.

At the time, the s were considered a Golden Age in Hollywood, but in fact they were merely a holding pattern, killing time until the next big thing—sound—came along.

In short order talkies separated the wheat from the chaff. Actors who had succeeded on their looks, but were not trained in elocution or who had unfortunate speaking voices, or thick regional accents became also-rans, as irrelevant as yesterday's newspaper.

Clara Bow, born and raised in Brooklyn, found her career effectively ended when she blew out the microphones on her first sound scene. One of Hollywood's most successful leading men, John Gilbert, found his career ruined after sound technicians neutered his tenor voice, and Marie Prevost's career was ruined by her thick Bronx accent; each had succumbed to alcoholism by the mids.

With the advent of sound, the movies—and Hollywood itself—entered into maturity. No longer a curiosity, movies, and moviemakers, were the unwitting producers of dreams, miners of the American unconscious.

Apart from a few fallow periods—the early s, for instance—what the astute student of film lore observes is the complex inter-relationship between entertainment and the values of a people.

And like the compartmentalized functions of the brain itself, the different studios each specialized in a particular sub-myth; Warner Brothers specialized in gangster films, the reptilian rear-brain ; Universal made its living off of horror films the unconscious ; MGM, rigorously wholesome light-hearted fare shades of the superego ; Columbia, wise-cracking screwball comedies the ego and Frank Capra pictures another example of the socializing super-ego.

Moviegoers could take their pick from a smorgasbord of the unconscious, and the relationship was reciprocal only insofar as a film that failed to tap into deep-seated archetypes was apt to sink from view in a matter of weeks.

As the instrument of our unconscious desires, film stars took on a preternatural significance. They were demi-gods and goddesses, archetypes, and by the same token, repositories of innately American virtues and vices.

And Hollywood itself was their charmed playland, the center of a galaxy of restaurants, bars, and nightclubs like a neon-lit Mount Olympus come to life in fact, a Hollywood housing development of the s was named Mount Olympus.

For a time, the places where film people staged their debauches became as well known as the stars that patronized them.

Celebritydom was enjoyed in public, movie stars less cloistered than they are today. At lunch time, crowds would gather around Hollywood eateries in the hopes of catching a glimpse of a Cary Grant or a Marlene Dietrich.

While the rest of the country struggled through the Depression, Hollywood wallowed in abundance, and far from taking umbrage with their antics, the public took their high-living as a reassuring sign that better times lay ahead.

Similarly, the nation's movie palaces acted as an extension of this mythology. If the studios were in the business of selling dreams, then the theaters with their slavish attention to detail augmented that feeling.

The gilded, air-conditioned temples were calculated to awe, and for many, the very act of going to the movies was a panacea, where for thirty cents one could temporarily shut out the overwhelming tide of misery around them.

Although Hollywood was not alone in its luxurious theaters, those that lined Hollywood Boulevard became world famous, especially for the red-carpeted premieres they so frequently hosted.

Graumann's Chinese Theater became something of a national landmark, for its premieres as well as the foot and hand prints embedded in fresh concrete around the box office.

Even as Hollywood wallowed in its good fortune, its destruction was at hand. Within a decade, this illusion of omnipotence would prove to be just that, illusory.

After two decades of staving off Justice Department anti-trust lawsuits, the moguls had relented and divested themselves of their theater holdings and ended their unreasonable, but lucrative, booking practices in effect, theater owners were forced to buy films in blocks, accepting many duds in order to book the one film they wanted.

In addition, the star-system the moguls had pinned their fortunes on had backfired with disastrous results.

Enormous salaries were one thing, but when the stars began packaging their own deals, in effect usurping the role of the studios, the moguls could only watch in horror as the power they had so carefully nurtured slipped through their fingers.

Now it was the actors, agents, and managers who called the shots. Television was a contributing factor to the demise of the studio system.

The big studios ignored the threat, and only marginal companies like RKO realized a profit, hiring their facilities out to the upstart medium.

Through the s and early s, the studios watched their profits evaporate as they grew further out of touch with the post-war audience.

Even then, Hollywood generated a kind of anti-alchemy with Film Noir, one of film's most enduring and symbolically rich genres, so perfectly in step with the mood of paranoia and desperation sweeping over the land.

But Film Noir's richness was unintentional; for the most part, the genre consisted of "B" movies and programmers, not the kinds of epic, sweeping dramas that studios took pride in.

Ironically, it was these same "B" movie actors and directors, more attuned to the changing times, who saved the majors, ushering in the New Hollywood, what was for many the last Golden Age of American movie-making.

By the early s, Hollywood profits had withered on the vine. Desperately casting about for a white knight to rescue them from the financial doldrums, executives began to take chances.

First there was Mike Nichols ' The Graduate , a film that not only redefined the parameters of what could be shown, but in casting Dustin Hoffman in the lead opened up the way for ethnic actors such as Robert De Niro and Al Pacino to be treated as legitimate leading men.

There was no one true breach that destroyed the dam of Hollywood's old system, it was more like many small ruptures in a dike. The Graduate was followed by Bonnie and Clyde , Easy Rider ; producer and star Peter Fonda joked that before the film was finished, the executives shook their heads in incomprehension, and afterwards, nodded their heads in bewilderment , then Midnight Cowboy , all films that would have been unthinkable ten years before.

The executives, who were as scornful of this new generations' politics as they were of their artistic influences, could finally do nothing more than let the floodwaters inundate them.

It would not last long. The s were a time of great artistic ferment in Hollywood, a changing of the guard in which the director, who had long been considered no more than a glorified technician by the studios, was now a hero.

With their newfound power, directors explored territory that only a decade earlier would have been strictly forbidden. As director Robert Altman put it, "Suddenly there was a moment when it seemed as if the pictures you wanted to make, they wanted to make.

The dark side of the auteur equation, however, was that as the decade edged towards its conclusion, the film budgets grew more outrageous; directors, fueled by a combination of drugs and hubris, grew more stunning in their arrogance; and when the inevitable shift in the cultural winds hit, it was the studio executives, nursing a decade of bruised egos, who had the upper hand.

Hollywood operates by a complex logarithm that is by nature amoral. In the Glamour Years, Hollywood produced and the audience bought tickets—a simple equation—but with the advent of marketing, sneak previews, and audience polling, the situation had come full circle.

America spoke with its dollars, and Hollywood had become very attentive. But what really spelled the death knell of the New Hollywood was the success of two films: Star Wars and Jaws What a nation weary from over a decade of war and civil unrest wanted was entertainment; not the sort of entertainment television could provide, but spectacle.

America wanted to be wowed, and that is exactly these films did. Within a few years, a man named Don Simpson would turn spectacle into a science, producing a string of mindless, but entertaining hits, simple films that could be summed up in twenty-five words or less.

His first hit, Flashdance , could be summed up thus: blue collar dancer yearns to be ballerina. And through the s and s, it was the event film, the summer blockbuster, that was Hollywood's bread and butter, an all-American spectacle of excess: sex, violence, and mind-boggling special effects.

In effect, these films were simply glorified genre films. Of course, Hollywood has always been a business, as one of its nicknames, the Glamour Factory, makes abundantly clear.

What it sells is glamour, sex, violence, physical beauty, and extravagance, while convincing the public it is buying virtue and art. From the moment Chandler and company set out their faked "SOLD" signs on the vacant lots, the modus operandi of Hollywood—deception—was firmly entrenched.

Hollywood will always be a valuable commodity. While the locus of power in the entertainment industry has moved elsewhere, down-at-the-heels Hollywood remains its most visible symbol.

But while the shifting dynamics of the industry have made Hollywood-the-place obsolete, it still remains a powerful symbol.

More than can ever be measured, Hollywood created the dreams of America in the twentieth century, allowing generations access to a symbolic tapestry in the darkened hush of the movie theater.

It is a paradox that while Hollywood can be defined and measured in square mileage, the map of its streets is but a dim shadow of the much more complex and ineffable map of the American psyche.

Hollywood exists and yet it is entirely ephemeral, a locked room in the collective unconscious. In , David O.

Selznick was wandering the empty streets of Hollywood late one night when he turned to his companions, saying, "Hollywood's like Egypt.

Full of crumbling pyramids. It'll never come back. It'll just keep on crumbling until finally the wind blows the last studio prop across the sand.

The myth of the place has become an archetype, and even while multinational corporations own every major studio outright, there has never been any question that Hollywood remains the center of film production both in spirit and in substance.

Anger, Kenneth. Hollywood Babylon. New York , Dell Publishing, Biskind, Peter. New York , Simon and Schuster, Fleming, Charles.

New York, Doubleday, Gabler, Neil. New York, Crown Publishers, Schatz, Thomas. New York, Pantheon Books, Sommer, Robin Langley. Hollywood: The Glamour Years New York, Gallery Books, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. August 11, Retrieved August 11, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.

Perched on the western edge of the North American continent, Hollywood has always looked like America's destiny.

From the early settlers in the s to the aspiring stars of the s, Hollywood was the place to start afresh, to build a new life in the sun.

In , Hollywood remains the dream factory, a place where every waiter and waitress is an aspiring actor, where every bartender, taxi driver, hotel receptionist, and hired helper has a screenplay tucked away in a drawer at home.

The reality of course is different. Part of the city of Los Angeles , California, since , Hollywood is a town like any other, complete with crime, poverty, and its fair share of sleaze.

But Hollywood's real location is in the mind. In , Hollywood was just a ranch, named by Mrs. Daeida Wilcox — after a friend's country house.

Aiming to attract midwesterners like themselves to the fertile land and the warm climate, the Wilcoxes divided the ranch into lots and laid out streets for a new town.

In a few years, Hollywood was thriving. By , a trolley line connected Hollywood population to Los Angeles. At first, most studios were located in nearby Edendale, but in , the Nestor Film Company became the first to set up a studio in Hollywood itself.

Ironically, in the very same year, the God-fearing Hollywood Board of Trustees actually banned movie theaters from the town.

But even so, by the s, most of the studios had moved there. Silent movie see entry under s—Film and Theater in volume 1 stars soon made Beverly Hills and Silver Lake into America's most glamorous postal addresses.

The stars themselves were the nearest thing in America to royalty. Temptingly, here was an aristocracy anyone could join. Hollywood became known as the place in America where anything was possible.

Screen stars built strange and elaborate mansions along Sunset Boulevard. They drove around in expensive, imported cars, took drugs, and were openly promiscuous casual about having many sexual partners.

Eventually, public opinion turned against them. In the late s, with the advent of sound in films, many popular actors of the silent era were found to have terrible speaking voices and lost their jobs.

Many sank into alcoholism and suicide. To make matters worse, the Hays Commission, a self-regulatory body of the film industry, was set up in the early s to control the moral content of Hollywood movies.

Many silent stars found themselves blacklisted put on a list of people not to be hired on moral grounds.

The s were Hollywood's golden age. Under the so-called "studio system," the major studios controlled every aspect of filmmaking from preproduction to small-town theaters.

Talented actors, directors, and technicians arrived from Europe to work for the studios. Famous writers like F.

Scott Fitzgerald — , Dorothy Parker — , and William Faulkner — made the journey west to work in pictures. Hollywood became a playground for celebrities eager to get themselves noticed.

Private lives became public property, and there was a sense that anything could be bought. As ever, people outdid one another with brash displays of wealth.

Jack gets a leg up on a screen test, Camille runs into typecasting trouble, Raymond pursues his directorial debut, and Archie bonds with a smitten Roy.

Henry's scheming at director George Cukor's star-studded party leads Jack to a revelation about his wife — and Roy into a private meeting with Dick.

Avis receives bombshell news about the studio, the actors prepare to audition for "Peg," and Archie faces a devastating change to his screenplay.

Problems arise as "Meg" begins production. Ellen takes a chance with Dick. Henry offers to make a brewing scandal over Jack's past go away — for a price.

Ernie lends a hand — and a whole lot more — when "Meg" hits a budget snag. Henry meddles with the film's final cut.

Avis feels her control slipping. As the Oscars approach, Ernie shares devastating news, Camille listens to sage advice from Hattie McDaniel, and Archie takes a stand on the red carpet.

Call Netflix Netflix. Creators: Ryan Murphy, Ian Brennan. Watch all you want for free. Videos Hollywood. Season 1 Trailer: Hollywood. Episodes Hollywood.

Season 1. Release year: Hooray for Hollywood 46m. Hooray for Hollywood: Part 2 46m.

Wir haben für euch alle News aus Hollywood! Infos über Stars, neue Filmprojekte usw. Natürlich brandaktuell und ihn gewohnter CINEMA-Qualität. Infoblatt Hollywood. Hollywood Sign (Corel). Cluster der Unterhaltungsindustrie. Hollywood ist ein Stadtteil von Los Angeles (L.A.) im US-Bundesstaat. Hier finden Sie alle News und Hintergrund-Informationen von ZEIT ONLINE zu Hollywood. Der Hollywood Blvd. ist eine kulturelle Ikone von Los Angeles - mit Museen, der damit aus ganz L.A. gut erreichbar ist. More Info. TCL Chinese Theatre IMAX. Wechseln zu: Navigation Hollywood Infos, Suche. Weiterhin Jugar Slot Book Of Ra Gratis der Oberste Gerichtshof, dass die Hollywoodstudios ihre Kinoketten abgeben mussten. Am Sie wurden unter Hunderten Free Slot Games Book Of Ra Anwärter ausgewählt. Die Infrastruktur und Rationalisierung der Produktionsabläufe in Hollywood waren ein wichtiger Wettbewerbsfaktor. Jetzt ist der Regisseur im Alter von 76 Jahren gestorben. Einige von ihnen sind von dort aus irgendwann mit Herzklopfen zum Dolby Theatre aufgebrochen; einer weiteren Sehenswürdigkeit. Einen Tag nach ihrem Tod, hat sie angeblich die Zusage zu einer Hauptrolle bekommen, welche im Film in den Suizid getrieben wird. Kellan Lutz in Trauer über die Fehlgeburt seiner Frau. Fast alle Produktionen beinhalteten eine Mit Sportwetten Reich Geworden Position und oft wurde auf ein Happy End verzichtet. Februar einen Gesetzentwurf vor, der die Grenzen für den Bereich Hollywood festlegte. Gleichzeitig werden viele Gegenden in Hollywood, insbesondere rund um den Hollywood Boulevard, immer stärker gentrifiziert. Nun ist der Talkmaster offenbar an Krebs gestorben.

The filming of The Count of Monte Cristo , the first film shot in California, was completed in Laguna Beach not long after, and Selig was so taken by the area that he returned the following year, setting up shop in a converted Chinese laundry east of downtown.

Soon film companies were flocking to Los Angeles. There were both financial and legal reasons for the move. Outdoor shoots could occur year round, and the Los Angeles basin afforded a wealth of natural scenery.

The official histories explain this first flowering as a happy combination of sunshine, open spaces, and diverse settings: the Sahara, the Alps, and the South Seas could all be simulated within Los Angeles' city limits.

Independent film producers were then at war with the Edison syndicate, who, by enforcing patents on film and projection equipment, were set on milking the industry ad infinitum.

In remote Los Angeles, collecting royalties would be no easy endeavor for the Edison bund. At first, the majority of studios settled in Edendale, a hilly and somewhat congested area just west of downtown.

It wasn't until that the first film studio, the Nestor Film Company, established itself in Hollywood proper.

By a happy coincidence, the city of Los Angeles had subsumed Hollywood, rendering the prohibition against movie theaters null and void. By the s, film production was wholly centered in Hollywood, with a scattering of studios established to the north, in Burbank, or southwest in Culver City.

The stars had also staked their claim to the geographic high-ground, moving from the downtown—the adjacent Silver Lake was the neighborhood of choice for the earliest silent stars—to the Hollywood Hills and just west to the lush canyons of Beverly Hills.

By some accounts most notably, Kenneth Anger 's lurid, sensationalistic bio-dissection, Hollywood Babylon , the silent era was a never-ending party of dope, booze, and aggressive promiscuity.

In this innocent time, drugs were an acceptable subject for pictures. In , for instance, Douglas Fairbanks starred in The Mystery of the Leaping Fish, appearing as Coke Ennyday, a somewhat besotted detective who availed himself liberally of "joy powder.

And push they did, with tragic results. In , popular starlet Olive Thomas committed suicide in Paris, occasioned by her failure to procure heroin; in , comedian Fatty Arbuckle was arrested for the death of aspiring starlet Virginia Rappe during "rough sex.

But the hemorrhaging had gone too far. In the wake of public outrage, the Hollywood production heads reluctantly appointed William H.

Hays, a Republican functionary, to act as arbiter of the public morality. Into the s, the notorious Hays Commission would pass judgment on all Hollywood product.

Hays declared that the movies needed purifying, both in content and cast. To aid in the latter, he released a notorious black-list, the kiss of death for many a screen idol.

Wallace Reid, one of Paramount's biggest stars, made the list he died in a sanitarium the following year , as did Juanita Hansen and Alma Rubens, both popular leading ladies, and both soon to be deceased.

At the time, the s were considered a Golden Age in Hollywood, but in fact they were merely a holding pattern, killing time until the next big thing—sound—came along.

In short order talkies separated the wheat from the chaff. Actors who had succeeded on their looks, but were not trained in elocution or who had unfortunate speaking voices, or thick regional accents became also-rans, as irrelevant as yesterday's newspaper.

Clara Bow, born and raised in Brooklyn, found her career effectively ended when she blew out the microphones on her first sound scene.

One of Hollywood's most successful leading men, John Gilbert, found his career ruined after sound technicians neutered his tenor voice, and Marie Prevost's career was ruined by her thick Bronx accent; each had succumbed to alcoholism by the mids.

With the advent of sound, the movies—and Hollywood itself—entered into maturity. No longer a curiosity, movies, and moviemakers, were the unwitting producers of dreams, miners of the American unconscious.

Apart from a few fallow periods—the early s, for instance—what the astute student of film lore observes is the complex inter-relationship between entertainment and the values of a people.

And like the compartmentalized functions of the brain itself, the different studios each specialized in a particular sub-myth; Warner Brothers specialized in gangster films, the reptilian rear-brain ; Universal made its living off of horror films the unconscious ; MGM, rigorously wholesome light-hearted fare shades of the superego ; Columbia, wise-cracking screwball comedies the ego and Frank Capra pictures another example of the socializing super-ego.

Moviegoers could take their pick from a smorgasbord of the unconscious, and the relationship was reciprocal only insofar as a film that failed to tap into deep-seated archetypes was apt to sink from view in a matter of weeks.

As the instrument of our unconscious desires, film stars took on a preternatural significance. They were demi-gods and goddesses, archetypes, and by the same token, repositories of innately American virtues and vices.

And Hollywood itself was their charmed playland, the center of a galaxy of restaurants, bars, and nightclubs like a neon-lit Mount Olympus come to life in fact, a Hollywood housing development of the s was named Mount Olympus.

For a time, the places where film people staged their debauches became as well known as the stars that patronized them.

Celebritydom was enjoyed in public, movie stars less cloistered than they are today. At lunch time, crowds would gather around Hollywood eateries in the hopes of catching a glimpse of a Cary Grant or a Marlene Dietrich.

While the rest of the country struggled through the Depression, Hollywood wallowed in abundance, and far from taking umbrage with their antics, the public took their high-living as a reassuring sign that better times lay ahead.

Similarly, the nation's movie palaces acted as an extension of this mythology. If the studios were in the business of selling dreams, then the theaters with their slavish attention to detail augmented that feeling.

The gilded, air-conditioned temples were calculated to awe, and for many, the very act of going to the movies was a panacea, where for thirty cents one could temporarily shut out the overwhelming tide of misery around them.

Although Hollywood was not alone in its luxurious theaters, those that lined Hollywood Boulevard became world famous, especially for the red-carpeted premieres they so frequently hosted.

Graumann's Chinese Theater became something of a national landmark, for its premieres as well as the foot and hand prints embedded in fresh concrete around the box office.

Even as Hollywood wallowed in its good fortune, its destruction was at hand. Within a decade, this illusion of omnipotence would prove to be just that, illusory.

After two decades of staving off Justice Department anti-trust lawsuits, the moguls had relented and divested themselves of their theater holdings and ended their unreasonable, but lucrative, booking practices in effect, theater owners were forced to buy films in blocks, accepting many duds in order to book the one film they wanted.

In addition, the star-system the moguls had pinned their fortunes on had backfired with disastrous results. Enormous salaries were one thing, but when the stars began packaging their own deals, in effect usurping the role of the studios, the moguls could only watch in horror as the power they had so carefully nurtured slipped through their fingers.

Now it was the actors, agents, and managers who called the shots. Television was a contributing factor to the demise of the studio system.

The big studios ignored the threat, and only marginal companies like RKO realized a profit, hiring their facilities out to the upstart medium.

Through the s and early s, the studios watched their profits evaporate as they grew further out of touch with the post-war audience.

Even then, Hollywood generated a kind of anti-alchemy with Film Noir, one of film's most enduring and symbolically rich genres, so perfectly in step with the mood of paranoia and desperation sweeping over the land.

But Film Noir's richness was unintentional; for the most part, the genre consisted of "B" movies and programmers, not the kinds of epic, sweeping dramas that studios took pride in.

Ironically, it was these same "B" movie actors and directors, more attuned to the changing times, who saved the majors, ushering in the New Hollywood, what was for many the last Golden Age of American movie-making.

By the early s, Hollywood profits had withered on the vine. Desperately casting about for a white knight to rescue them from the financial doldrums, executives began to take chances.

First there was Mike Nichols ' The Graduate , a film that not only redefined the parameters of what could be shown, but in casting Dustin Hoffman in the lead opened up the way for ethnic actors such as Robert De Niro and Al Pacino to be treated as legitimate leading men.

There was no one true breach that destroyed the dam of Hollywood's old system, it was more like many small ruptures in a dike.

The Graduate was followed by Bonnie and Clyde , Easy Rider ; producer and star Peter Fonda joked that before the film was finished, the executives shook their heads in incomprehension, and afterwards, nodded their heads in bewilderment , then Midnight Cowboy , all films that would have been unthinkable ten years before.

The executives, who were as scornful of this new generations' politics as they were of their artistic influences, could finally do nothing more than let the floodwaters inundate them.

It would not last long. The s were a time of great artistic ferment in Hollywood, a changing of the guard in which the director, who had long been considered no more than a glorified technician by the studios, was now a hero.

With their newfound power, directors explored territory that only a decade earlier would have been strictly forbidden.

As director Robert Altman put it, "Suddenly there was a moment when it seemed as if the pictures you wanted to make, they wanted to make. The dark side of the auteur equation, however, was that as the decade edged towards its conclusion, the film budgets grew more outrageous; directors, fueled by a combination of drugs and hubris, grew more stunning in their arrogance; and when the inevitable shift in the cultural winds hit, it was the studio executives, nursing a decade of bruised egos, who had the upper hand.

Hollywood operates by a complex logarithm that is by nature amoral. In the Glamour Years, Hollywood produced and the audience bought tickets—a simple equation—but with the advent of marketing, sneak previews, and audience polling, the situation had come full circle.

America spoke with its dollars, and Hollywood had become very attentive. But what really spelled the death knell of the New Hollywood was the success of two films: Star Wars and Jaws What a nation weary from over a decade of war and civil unrest wanted was entertainment; not the sort of entertainment television could provide, but spectacle.

America wanted to be wowed, and that is exactly these films did. Within a few years, a man named Don Simpson would turn spectacle into a science, producing a string of mindless, but entertaining hits, simple films that could be summed up in twenty-five words or less.

His first hit, Flashdance , could be summed up thus: blue collar dancer yearns to be ballerina. And through the s and s, it was the event film, the summer blockbuster, that was Hollywood's bread and butter, an all-American spectacle of excess: sex, violence, and mind-boggling special effects.

In effect, these films were simply glorified genre films. Of course, Hollywood has always been a business, as one of its nicknames, the Glamour Factory, makes abundantly clear.

What it sells is glamour, sex, violence, physical beauty, and extravagance, while convincing the public it is buying virtue and art.

From the moment Chandler and company set out their faked "SOLD" signs on the vacant lots, the modus operandi of Hollywood—deception—was firmly entrenched.

Hollywood will always be a valuable commodity. While the locus of power in the entertainment industry has moved elsewhere, down-at-the-heels Hollywood remains its most visible symbol.

But while the shifting dynamics of the industry have made Hollywood-the-place obsolete, it still remains a powerful symbol.

More than can ever be measured, Hollywood created the dreams of America in the twentieth century, allowing generations access to a symbolic tapestry in the darkened hush of the movie theater.

It is a paradox that while Hollywood can be defined and measured in square mileage, the map of its streets is but a dim shadow of the much more complex and ineffable map of the American psyche.

Hollywood exists and yet it is entirely ephemeral, a locked room in the collective unconscious. In , David O. Selznick was wandering the empty streets of Hollywood late one night when he turned to his companions, saying, "Hollywood's like Egypt.

Full of crumbling pyramids. It'll never come back. It'll just keep on crumbling until finally the wind blows the last studio prop across the sand.

The myth of the place has become an archetype, and even while multinational corporations own every major studio outright, there has never been any question that Hollywood remains the center of film production both in spirit and in substance.

Anger, Kenneth. Hollywood Babylon. New York , Dell Publishing, Biskind, Peter. New York , Simon and Schuster, Fleming, Charles.

New York, Doubleday, Gabler, Neil. New York, Crown Publishers, Schatz, Thomas. New York, Pantheon Books, Sommer, Robin Langley.

Hollywood: The Glamour Years New York, Gallery Books, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. August 11, Retrieved August 11, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.

Perched on the western edge of the North American continent, Hollywood has always looked like America's destiny. From the early settlers in the s to the aspiring stars of the s, Hollywood was the place to start afresh, to build a new life in the sun.

In , Hollywood remains the dream factory, a place where every waiter and waitress is an aspiring actor, where every bartender, taxi driver, hotel receptionist, and hired helper has a screenplay tucked away in a drawer at home.

The reality of course is different. Part of the city of Los Angeles , California, since , Hollywood is a town like any other, complete with crime, poverty, and its fair share of sleaze.

But Hollywood's real location is in the mind. In , Hollywood was just a ranch, named by Mrs. Daeida Wilcox — after a friend's country house.

Aiming to attract midwesterners like themselves to the fertile land and the warm climate, the Wilcoxes divided the ranch into lots and laid out streets for a new town.

In a few years, Hollywood was thriving. By , a trolley line connected Hollywood population to Los Angeles.

At first, most studios were located in nearby Edendale, but in , the Nestor Film Company became the first to set up a studio in Hollywood itself. Ironically, in the very same year, the God-fearing Hollywood Board of Trustees actually banned movie theaters from the town.

But even so, by the s, most of the studios had moved there. Silent movie see entry under s—Film and Theater in volume 1 stars soon made Beverly Hills and Silver Lake into America's most glamorous postal addresses.

The stars themselves were the nearest thing in America to royalty. Temptingly, here was an aristocracy anyone could join. Hollywood became known as the place in America where anything was possible.

Screen stars built strange and elaborate mansions along Sunset Boulevard. They drove around in expensive, imported cars, took drugs, and were openly promiscuous casual about having many sexual partners.

Eventually, public opinion turned against them. In the late s, with the advent of sound in films, many popular actors of the silent era were found to have terrible speaking voices and lost their jobs.

Many sank into alcoholism and suicide. To make matters worse, the Hays Commission, a self-regulatory body of the film industry, was set up in the early s to control the moral content of Hollywood movies.

Many silent stars found themselves blacklisted put on a list of people not to be hired on moral grounds. The s were Hollywood's golden age. In post-World War II Hollywood, an ambitious group of aspiring actors and filmmakers will do almost anything to make their showbiz dreams come true.

While waiting for his big break, aspiring movie star Jack Castello accepts a job at a local service station that pumps more than just gas.

Jack gets a leg up on a screen test, Camille runs into typecasting trouble, Raymond pursues his directorial debut, and Archie bonds with a smitten Roy.

Henry's scheming at director George Cukor's star-studded party leads Jack to a revelation about his wife — and Roy into a private meeting with Dick.

Avis receives bombshell news about the studio, the actors prepare to audition for "Peg," and Archie faces a devastating change to his screenplay.

Problems arise as "Meg" begins production. Ellen takes a chance with Dick. Henry offers to make a brewing scandal over Jack's past go away — for a price.

Ernie lends a hand — and a whole lot more — when "Meg" hits a budget snag. Henry meddles with the film's final cut.

Avis feels her control slipping. As the Oscars approach, Ernie shares devastating news, Camille listens to sage advice from Hattie McDaniel, and Archie takes a stand on the red carpet.

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